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Offer H pylori eradication therapy to people who have tested positive for H pylori and who have peptic ulcer disease asthma zones cheap 50/20 mcg combimist l inhaler. After 4 to 8 weeks, patients receiving acid suppression therapy average National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, 2014 147 Dyspepsia and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease 69% healing: eradication increases this by a further 5. After 3?12 months, 39% of patients receiving short term acid suppression therapy are without ulcer: eradication increases this by a further 52%, a number needed to treat for one patient to benefit from eradication of 2. Trials all show a positive benefit for H pylori eradication but the size of the effect is inconsistent. After 3?12 months, 45% of patients receiving short term acid suppression therapy are without ulcer; eradication increases this by a further 32%, a number needed to treat for one patient to benefit from eradication of 3. Trials all show a positive benefit for H pylori eradication but the size of the effect is inconsistent (I) H pylori eradication therapy is a cost-effective treatment for H pylori positive patients with peptic ulcer disease. Eradication therapy provides additional time free from dyspepsia at acceptable cost in conservative models and is cost-saving in more optimistic models. In a single trial of eight weeks duration, first occurrence was reduced from 26% to 7% of patients. The promotion of healing and prevention of recurrence in those with existing ulcer disease is unclear. Functional dyspepsia, refers to patients whose endoscopic investigation has excluded gastric or duodenal ulcer, malignancy or oesophagitis. Simple gastritis or duodenitis found by endoscopy are not considered significant abnormalities, but erosive duodenitis and gastric erosions are considered part of the spectrum of ulcer disease. Trials indicate that, untreated, at least 70% of these patients will have persistent symptoms a year after diagnosis: unlike peptic ulcer disease there is no one off? cure and treatment may often be needed on a long-term basis. A Swedish study followed 1,059 individuals for a year and found that only 12% of those originally with dyspeptic symptoms were asymptomatic and 16% were classed as having irritable bowel syndrome, 1 year later . The long term value of available symptomatic treatments rests upon extrapolation from short term trials. There is considerable uncertainty about the appropriate long term management of patients with persistent symptoms. In the light of this uncertainty, patients should be offered periodic review of their condition and medication, with a trial of reduced use if appropriate. Available evidence from trials indicates that eradication of H pylori (if present) is an effective and cost effective option. Benefit is obtained by a short course of therapy, whilst acid suppression requires long term treatment.
- Amount swallowed
- Build up of fluid inside the skull (hydrocephalus)
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N o to < 4 foratleast significantdifference 15 s betweenth e two groups innum berordurationof reflux episodes or% of tim e pH < 4 A dapted from Tolia V asthma treatment without inhaler buy combimist l inhaler 50/20 mcg without a prescription. S tudy Definition of Drug and dosage O utcom e siz e design extra oesoph ageal sym ptom K h osh oo and 44 Investigator A sth m a? A ll and C h ad previously h ad P P I /prokineticfor 1 year A dapted from Tolia V. S tudy design Definition of Drug and O utcom e siz e extra dosage oesoph ageal sym ptom S tordalet 38 with R andom iz ed P h ysician O m epraz ole 20 A sth m a al. Patterson,d David Armstrong,e John Provias,f and Qiyin Fanga,b,* aMcMaster University, School of Biomedical Engineering, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada bMcMaster University, Department of Engineering Physics, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada cSunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Onario M4N 3M5, Canada dMcMaster University, Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada eMcMaster University, Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada fMcMaster University, Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Division of Neuropathology, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada Abstract. Our results showed 95% sensitivity and 87% specificity using the optimal feature combination and demonstrated the potential for extension to a three-dimensional cell model. Gross observation metaplasia that may eventually progress via low-grade dysplasia shows the nondistorted architecture, existence of goblet cells, 4 and less stratified morphology. Optical biopsy is an neoplastic lesions and obtained sensitivity and specificity of 0. Note that the cence images of both cell lines in monoculture and coculture textural features were extracted from 8-bit intensity images. The fluorescent area (mitochondria distribution) is highlighted by the solid line, and the cell shapes based on the bright-field images are indicated by the dashed line. The exami data acquired using two-photon excitation demonstrated a sim nation of feature combination is then based on this sequence. The bounding box, convex area (area within dashed lines), and the ellipse are noted. This image shows the line used for extracting the line scan intensity profile as described in Table 2. There is a ellipsea the length of the major axis of the ellipse; trend that the error of coculture classification is almost doubled larger values indicate slender shapes after three features. This could be due to the fact that the other features are not as discriminating and that they add noise to the Major to minor axis Ratio of the lengths of the two axes of the process. Extraction of features can be a time-consuming task ratioe ellipse; larger values indicate slender shapes since it requires computing geometric, intensity, and texture fea Extentg Binary pixel area divided by the bounding box tures from each cell. Figures 6 and 7 dem features Descriptions onstrate the training results using monoculture cells and the Line scan intensity Cumulative intensity profile along the line corresponding classification results on the cocultured cells. Although the j training result demonstrates sensitivity of 90% and specificity Smoothness 1? Figure 7 shows the training results based on eccentricity and the slope Entropy Randomness of intensity values within the obtained from the line scan profile. The standard deviation of each data point was not shown in the figure for easy visualization. The current study also provides promising results that took the intensity variation into account might improve the when compared with a previous imaging study using other con classifier. Feature extraction and classification in this study were trast agents in vivo,10 but an extension from the current study to a initially performed at the single-cell level in an attempt to have a 3-D environment is necessary for a more direct comparison.
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Influenza type A viruses are widespread in nature asthma essential oils quality combimist l inhaler 50/20mcg, infecting many avian species, but also humans, pigs, horses, and occasion ally other species such as cats. Influenza B virus is an exclusively human pathogen, while influenza C viruses are not serious pathogens in humans. Influenza type A viruses are further subdivided into subtypes depending on the nature of their two external glycoproteins. When referring to an influenza A virus isolate, it is therefore necessary to specify precisely which subtype it is, for example influenza A/H1N1 or influenza A/H7N7. Entry and spread within the body Influenza virus enters via the nasal or oral mucosa. In humans and other mammalian species, the virus is pneumotropic (in avian species, the virus infects a variety of tissues and is primarily spread through the fecal?oral route), that is it preferentially binds to, and infects, respiratory epithelial cells, all the way from the oropharynx and nasopharynx right down to the alveolar walls. Influenza virus attaches to target cells via an interaction between the viral ligand, hemagglutinin, and a cellular receptor, compris ing sialic acid residues, a component of the carbohydrate within glycopro teins, on the surface of respiratory epithelial cells. The virus then replicates and new virions are released by the infected cells by budding at the plasma membrane of the host cell. With infections of the lower respiratory tract, direct infec tion of pneumocytes and macrophages can occur. Given the systemic nature of the illness caused by influenza virus infection (see below), it is perhaps surprising that the virus itself does not usually spread beyond the respiratory tract. Spread from person to person Transmission of influenza viruses from person to person is believed to be via large droplets (? The droplets are deposited on the nasal or oral mucosa of a new susceptible host lead ing to infection. Epidemiology the epidemiology of influenza has several unusual characteristics (Figure 2). Annual outbreaks of infection are highly seasonal, arising each winter in temperate climates, with a considerable percentage (e. Superimposed on interpandemic epidemics that, at irregular intervals averaging about once every 30?40 years, there is a massive peak corresponding to an influenza pandemic. However, superimposed on this reg ular annual cyclical pattern, unpredictable global epidemics occur, on a scale much greater than the annual outbreaks, sweeping across the world with huge numbers of infections, and considerable morbidity and mortal ity. These latter phenomena are referred to as pandemics, and experience in the 20th century plus careful reading of historical records suggest that these have occurred about every 30 years or so. Influenza epidemics and pandemics arise from the processes of antigenic drift and antigenic shift, respectively. It arises from random spontaneous mutation occurring within the influenza virus genome as it replicates. Virus causing an outbreak in a particular year will have up to 1% genome sequence difference from virus that caused the pre vious year?s outbreak.
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Clinical subtypes of chronic traumatic encephalopa and related symptoms (eg asthma definition honor cheap combimist l inhaler on line, hopelessness, thy: literature review and proposed research diagnostic criteria for traumatic encephalopathy syndrome. Cognitive difficulties that involve cognitive decline and impaired cognitive test perfor mance (ie, 1. These validated: core and supportive features are used to classify individuals into 1 of the 4 distinct diagnostic 1. This work was matched subjects who did not play football until supported by the Department of Veterans Affairs, after the age of 12 years. The spec studies are needed to precisely define the clinical trum of disease in chronic traumatic encephalopa manifestations of the disease and therole of factors thy. Cogni morbid medical conditions in the clinical expres tive effects of one season of head impacts in a cohort sion of the disease. Acta Neuropathol 1999; lopathy: literature review and proposed research 98(2):171?8. Chronic aging with Pittsburgh compound B and florbetapir: traumatic encephalopathy in a National Football comparing radiotracers and quantification methods. Inflammation after trauma: microglial activation veterans and a blast neurotrauma mouse model. Age of traumatic encephalopathy pathology in a neurode first exposure to football and later-life cognitive generative disorders brain bank. The information provided is not intended to be comprehensive or to offer a defined standard of care. The user agrees to release and indemnify the American College of Surgeons from claims arising from Management of Head Injur y use of the publication. Patient remains unresponsive should increase suspicion of an Examination: Glasgow Coma Scale Left Brisk (cannot protect airway) intracranial mass lesion that Sluggish 3. Patient requires sedation for Best Eye Opening Best Verbal Response requires immediate operation. Other Considerations 2 To pain 3 Inappropriate words by the most experienced person Neurosurgical 1 Not at all 2 Incomprehensible sounds Treat Herniation A. Use techniques that Management Spine fracture can be present in cause the least movement of 1 No verbalization A. Treatment of patients with one spine fracture consciousness is to be sedated (flexion-withdrawal) to painful stimuli may have another spine fracture. Systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg C1 Cervical Spine can lead to secondary brain injury. Obtain C-spine film as soon as abnormalities solely to the possible presence of drugs or alcohol. Lisa Hain, my Committee Chair, whose expert guidance and dedication throughout this endeavor have allowed me to successfully complete this research. Her tireless vigor, encouragement, and enthusiasm not only roused an interest in brain injuries but also invigorated me to sustain effort and motivation throughout this process.
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From 1999 low asthma treatment toddler effective combimist l inhaler 50/20 mcg, although in the presence of genital ulcers, infection to 2004, several instances of small epidemics of rates as high as 10% have been reported. This self with unrealistically favorable assumptions regarding the limiting disease (Figure 17. But it is the sick who are crying for Then, the immune response kicks in; antibodies help, not the healthy who are crying for condoms. Viremia levels decrease by several virus are probably the dendritic cells in the mucosa of orders of magnitude, stabilizing at a lower level, called the genital tract. This preferential infection (followed by as early as 1 or 2 years after infection. Chronic asymptomatic infection is associated tions showing progression is considerable. Production of 1011 viral particles emergence of resistance becomes much less likely, and daily provides the potential for a mutation at every in those circumstances, patients may be treated for single nucleotide position. Nonetheless, selective pressure of a partially effective immune the virus persists in reservoirs that are not accessible to response or partially effective therapy, resistant muta current treatment. To obtain a durable antiviral productive infection in pools of long-lived lympho effect, several drugs must be combined to completely cytes. Onset of fever can be abrupt and is associ antibodies appear a few weeks after infection, shortly ated with diffuse lymphadenopathy and pharyngitis. Painful ulcers can develop in the is precisely known (for instance, in individuals oral and genital mucosa (Figure 17. Gastrointesti infected by a blood transfusion), the delay to the nal complaints are common, with many patients expe appearance of antibodies can be determined: about riencing nausea, anorexia, and diarrhea. A skin rash 5% of patients seroconvert within 7 days, 50% within often begins 2 to 3 days after the onset of fever and 20 days, and more than 95% within 90 days. The fore, a period exists (called the window period?) dur lesions are small pink-to-red macules or macu ing which, although the patient is infected, antibodies lopapules (Figure 17. About the Clinical Manifestation True false-positives are much rare than Indeterminate? test results. Accompanied by threshold for positivity, but much below the results of a routine positive test. To diminish these indeterminate reac a) non-exudative pharyngitis and lymphadenitis. An indeterminate? test is usually a false posi suppression and symptomatic status of the patient. The sequence towards a wreck: the speed corresponds to the level of shows the presence or absence of mutations that are viremia, and the distance to the site of the wreck associated with antiretroviral resistance. Phenotypic after 2 to 6 months of treatment, all patients on modern tests are more expensive than genotypic tests, and antiretroviral therapy should have fewer than 50 copies they take 1 to 3 weeks to complete. However, within this broad correlation, large improve the outcome of treatment, but they may allow inef inter-individual variations occur, with patients remain fective drugs to be discontinued, thus sparing side effects ing in good health for many years despite viremia and costs.
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However asthma definition 2 order 50/20 mcg combimist l inhaler overnight delivery, absences do not affect the requirement for a Progress Report at least once during each Progress Report Period. If the patient is absent unexpectedly at the end of the reporting period, when the clinician has not yet provided the required active participation during that reporting period, a Progress Report is still required, but without the clinician?s active participation in treatment, the requirements of the Progress Report Period are incomplete. If the clinician has not written a Progress Report before the end of the Progress Reporting Period, it shall be written within 7calendar days after the end of the reporting period. If the clinician did not participate actively in treatment during the Progress Report Period, documentation of the delayed active participation shall be entered in the Treatment Note as soon as possible. The Treatment Note shall explain the reason for the clinician?s missed active participation. Also, the Treatment Note shall document the clinician?s guidance to the assistant or qualified personnel to justify that the skills of a therapist were required during the reporting period. It is not necessary to include in this Treatment Note any information already recorded in prior Treatment Notes or Progress Reports. The contractor shall make a clinical judgment whether continued treatment by assistants or qualified personnel is reasonable and necessary when the clinician has not actively participated in treatment for longer than one reporting period. Judgment shall be based on the individual case and documentation of the application of the clinician?s skills to guide the assistant or qualified personnel during and after the reporting period. Often, Progress Reports are written weekly, or even daily, at the discretion of the clinician. Clinicians are encouraged, but not required to write Progress Reports more frequently than the minimum required in order to allow anyone who reviews the records to easily determine that the services provided are appropriate, covered and payable. Elements of Progress Reports may be written in the Treatment Notes if the provider/supplier or clinician prefers. If each element required in a Progress Report is included in the Treatment Notes at least once during the Progress Report Period, then a separate Progress Report is not required. Also, elements of the Progress Report may be incorporated into a revised Plan of Care when one is indicated. The policy for incident to services requires, for example, the physician?s initial service, direct supervision of therapy services, and subsequent services of a frequency which reflect his/her active participation in and management of the course of treatment (See section 60. Verification of the clinician?s required participation in treatment during the Progress Report Period shall be documented by the clinician?s signature on the Treatment Note and/or on the Progress Report. When unexpected discontinuation of treatment occurs, contractors shall not require a clinician?s participation in treatment for the incomplete reporting period. The Discharge Note (or Discharge Summary) is required for each episode of outpatient treatment. The Discharge Note shall be a Progress Report written by a clinician, and shall cover the reporting period from the last Progress Report to the date of discharge. In the case of a discharge unanticipated in the plan or previous Progress Report, the clinician may base any judgments required to write the report on the Treatment Notes and verbal reports of the assistant or qualified personnel. In the case of a discharge anticipated within 3 treatment days of the Progress Report, the clinician may provide objective goals which, when met, will authorize the assistant or qualified personnel to discharge the patient.
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Individuals with disorganized and variable sleeping and waking times most often present with significant psychological disturbance asthma classification 0-4 quality combimist l inhaler 50/20mcg, usually in association with various psychiatric conditions such as personality disorders and affective disorders. In individuals who frequently change work shifts or travel across time zones, the circadian dysregulation is basically biological, although a strong emotional component may also be operating since many such individuals are distressed. Finally, in some individuals there is a phase advance to the desired sleep-wake schedule, which may be due to either an intrinsic malfunction of the circadian oscillator (biological clock) or an abnormal processing of the time-cues that drive the biological clock (the latter may in fact be related to an emotional and/or cognitive disturbance). The present code is reserved for those disorders of the sleep-wake schedule in which psychological factors play the most important role, whereas cases of presumed organic origin should be classified under G47. Whether or not psychological factors are of primary importance and, therefore, whether the present code or G47. Whenever there is no identifiable psychiatric or physical cause of the disorder, the present code should be used alone. When other psychiatric symptoms are sufficiently marked and persistent, the specific mental disorder(s) should be diagnosed separately. During a sleepwalking episode the individual arises from bed, usually during the first third of nocturnal sleep, and walks about, exhibiting low levels of awareness, reactivity, and motor skill. A sleepwalker will sometimes leave the bedroom and at times may actually 146 walk out of the house, and is thus exposed to considerable risks of injury during the episode. Most often, however, he or she will return quietly to bed, either unaided or when gently led by another person. Upon awakening either from the sleepwalking episode or the next morning, there is usually no recall of the event. Both are considered as disorders of arousal, particularly arousal from the deepest stages of sleep (stages 3 and 4). Many individuals have a positive family history for either condition as well as a personal history of having experienced both. Moreover, both conditions are much more common in childhood, which indicates the role of developmental factors in their etiology. In addition, in some cases, the onset of these conditions coincides with a febrile illness. When they continue beyond childhood or are first observed in adulthood, both conditions tend to be associated with significant psychological disturbance; the conditions may also occur for the first time in old age or in the early stages of dementia. Based upon the clinical and pathogenetic similarities between sleepwalking and sleep terrors, and the fact that the differential diagnosis of these disorders is usually a matter of which of the two is predominant, they have both been considered recently to be part of the same nosologic continuum. For consistency with tradition, however, as well as to emphasize the differences in the intensity of clinical manifestations, separate codes are provided in this classification. Diagnostic guidelines the following clinical features are essential for a definite diagnosis: (a)the predominant symptom is one or more episodes of rising from bed, usually during the first third of nocturnal sleep, and walking about; (b)during an episode, the individual has a blank, staring face, is relatively unresponsive to the efforts of others to influence the event or to communicate with him or her, and can be awakened only with considerable difficulty; (c)upon awakening (either from an episode or the next morning), the individual has no recollection of the episode; (d)within several minutes of awakening from the episode, there is no impairment of mental activity or behaviour, although there may initially be a short period of some confusion and disorientation; (e)there is no evidence of an organic mental disorder such as dementia, or a physical disorder such as epilepsy.
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The medical treatment for cystine stones aims to reduce cystine saturation in urine and increase its solubility asthma prognosis combimist l inhaler 50/20 mcg online. The initial treatment consists of maintaining a high urine flow and the use of alkalinising agents, such as potassium citrate to maintain urine pH at above 7. If this treatment fails, the use of alphamercaptopropionyl glycine or D-penicilamin may increase cystine solubility and reduce cystine levels in urine and prevent stone formation. Bacteria capable of producing urease enzyme (Proteus, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas) are responsible for the formation of such stones. Urease converts urea into ammonia and bicarbonate, alkalinising the urine and further converting bicarbonate into carbonate. Haematuria, usually visible, occurring with or without pain, is less common in children. However, non visible haematuria may be the sole indicator and is more common in children. In some cases, urinary infection may be the only finding leading to radiological imaging in which a stone is identified [818, 819]. Many radiopaque stones can be identified with a simple abdominal flat-plate examination. Low dose protocols have also been developed with the goal of reducing radiation dose with adequate image quality . Intravenous pyelography is rarely used in children, but may be needed to delineate the caliceal anatomy prior to percutaneous or open surgery. Figure 8 provides an algorithm of how to perform metabolic investigations in urinary stone disease in children and how to plan medical treatment accordingly. With the advance of technology stone management has changed from open surgical approaches to endoscopic techniques that are less invasive. Deciding on the type of treatment depends on the number, size, location, stone composition and the anatomy of the urinary tract [825, 827, 828]. Expectant management is the initial management in children with asymptomatic small size stones (< 4-5 mm) with a possibility of spontaneous clearance. There is no consensus on the size of stones for different ages eligible for clearance and the duration of conservative follow-up. Only a small portion of children will require open surgery but all attempts must be made to completely remove all stones since post-operative residual fragments pass spontaneously in only 20-25% of cases [831, 832]. A congenital obstructive uropathy should be managed together with stone removal therapy to prevent recurrence.
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Brooding invariably makes you feel worse because you never resolve the existing questions and may even generate new questions that cannot be answered asthma symptoms xanax buy discount combimist l inhaler 50/20mcg on line. Attentional processes When you are worried about your health, you become more self-focused on your physical sensations and feelings and at the same time discarding negative test results. This tends to make you more aware of how you feel and makes you more likely to assume that your thoughts or pictures in your mind (such as an image of yourself being ill) are realities. This, in turn, interferes with your ability to make simple decisions, pay attention to or concentrate on your normal tasks or what people around you are saying. Your view of the world now depends on your thoughts and the way these chatter away inside your mind rather than your experience. In other situations you may be so focused on monitoring your physical sensations that you fail to take in the context and find it difficult to concentrate on what others are saying. Effect on feelings Experiencing health anxiety is often a mixture of different emotions. The problem is not that you are just anxious, but that your anxiety is either particularly severe or persistent. Anxiety can produce a variety of physical sensations too, including feeling hot and sweaty, having a racing heart, feeling faint, wobbly or shaky, experiencing muscle tension (for example, headaches), having stomach upsets or diarrhoea, to list a few. If, however, you are becoming despondent and hopeless about the future, you may feel down or emotionally numb?, feeling that life has lost its fun. In addition you might start to experience sleep problems, lose your appetite and sexual interests. You might be brooding about the past, feel more irritable, and have difficulty concentrating. With depression, people can react by becoming withdrawn and inactive and wanting to avoid situations or activities that are painful. When the fear is high, you may either try to distract yourself from your thoughts and feelings or to escape from or avoid situations that remind you of illness or death. For example, you might avoid going to the doctor because you are convinced you will be given bad news. You might avoid people who are ill, hospitals, doctor?s surgeries, funerals, cemeteries, or reading anything about illness or death in the media. In this respect you may have so-called magical thinking?, where you believe that simply thinking about bad events will make them happen. When your doubt is high, you may make excessive checks? in the form of self-examination. Checking is an example of a safety behavior? that aims to prevent harm, increase certainty and reduce anxiety. People with health anxiety try to adopt ways to improve the way they feel but unfor tunately the solutions usually leave them feeling worse and prevent them from testing out their fears. Safety behaviors are a way of trying too hard? to prevent bad consequences but often the solutions become the problem.
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The more frequently reported serious adverse reactions (>4 patients) during this time period were aspiration (n=14) asthmatic bronchitis yoga buy combimist l inhaler canada, barium impaction (n=4), and dyspnea (n=4). During the market use period of Barium Sulfate products for which exposure to the products had not been captured. The serious adverse reactions most often reported (>4 patients) during this period were: aspiration (n=10); urticaria (n=7); large intestine obstruction (n=6); dyspnea (n=5); and rectal perforation, vomiting, and pneumonia aspiration (n=4, each). This is a retrospective study of complications of barium enema examinations performed during the three year period 1992-1994. There were 30 cases of perforation, resulting in 3 deaths: overall mortality 10%; 13 intraperitoneal perforations (2 deaths) and 17 extraperitoneal perforations (1 death). There were 8 reported cases of barium impaction, which generally resolved without further complication, with the exception of a case of sigmoid volvulus requiring surgical intervention. Two cases of vaginal catheter placement caused complications, persistent hemorrhage in one requiring hysterectomy, the other developing extraperitoneal extravasation presumably from vaginal rupture, with death occurring 3 weeks later. One case of venous intravasation occurred without sequelae, an allergic reaction promptly recognized and treated, and 2 cases of septicemia, one associated with diverticulitis, without sequelae, and the other with colovesical fistula due to underlying carcinoma, treated surgically. Complications were reported by 77 of the 756 consultants who returned a valid questionnaire. Eighty-two (82) complications were reported from a total of 738,216 examinations (complication rate of 1 in 9003 or 0. In 13 cases, the complication resulted in a fatal outcome (overall mortality rate of 1 in 56,786 or 0. This retrospective study involved questionnaires sent to 741 radiographers who had attended the Leeds Barium Enema Course for Radiographers prior to 2001. Twenty three radiographers no longer performed barium enemas, leaving 384 completed questionnaires for evaluation. These resulted in 5 deaths from a total of 348,433 examinations, giving a mortality of 1 in 69,687. Complications included 24 bowel perforations, resulting in 2 deaths: mortality of 8%. Underlying pathology was present in 5 of the 13 intraperitoneal perforations, three malignant tumors and 2 cases of inflammatory bowel disease. The questionnaire was designed to ascertain the number, type, and outcome of complications that have been encountered by the radiographers when performing barium enema. Among the 384 radiographers who completed the questionnaire, 59 reported a total of 89 complications from 348,433 exams performed. The most common reactions include nausea, vomiting, and abdominal cramping or discomfort during and/or after the examination, and are most likely due to a physiologic response resulting from distention of a viscus.