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In penaeid shrimp hiv infection test proven 100mg nemasole, maturation involves two main processes, vitellogenesis and final matu ration of oocytes. In vitellogenesis of penaeid shrimp, two phases are involved: vitellogenin (Vg, a precursor of egg yolk protein) synthesis in the ovary and accumulation of vitellin in oocytes. Vg synthesis in ovarian tissue pieces can be stimulated by thoracic ganglion extract prepared from vitellogenic females. Vg synthesis in incubated previtellogenic ovarian pieces can be stimulated by estradiol-17. Oil globule stage oocytes, which are the oocytes at the initial stage of primary vitellognesis, were found in incubated previtellogenic ovarian pieces after treatment with estradiol-17? Unilateral eyestalk ablation is effective in increasing serum Vg in the kuruma prawn. Vg synthesis can be induced slightly in isolated previtellogenic ovarian pieces, which are not affected directly by hormones from eyestalks in vitro in the kuruma prawn. On the other hand, Vg synthesis in ovarian pieces incubated with thoracic ganglion pieces prepared from vitellogenic females could be stimulated by serotonin. However, serotonin was not effective in stimulating Vg synthesis in ovarian pieces incubated without thoracic ganglion pieces. These results suggested that secretion of vitellogenesis-stimulating hormone from the thoracic ganglion may be induced by serotonin. Vitellogenesis occurs in hard Control of maturation and spawning is a major problem shelled shrimp at the intermolt stage C, shortly after molting 4 in the development of commercial aquaculture programs for and continues until immediately before final maturation in penaeid shrimp. Thus, vitellogenesis is controlled by two factors, one and be generally useful for obtaining disease-free spawners. In Eyestalk ablation has been used to mature and spawn female previtellogenic (immature) females, the vitellogenesis-stimu shrimp in captivity in conjunction with management of wa lating principle is absent or not yet functioning. Knowledge of hormonal con stimulated by implantation of pieces of thoracic ganglion trol of maturation and spawning in crustaceans, however, is tissue prepared from the female lobster, Homarus fragmentary. Injection of ganglion and ovary) and their functions which are closely thoracic ganglion extract prepared from vitellogenic females related to the release of vitellogenesis-stimulalting hormones is effective in increasing serum Vg in the kuruma prawn, P. On the other hand, Vg (a necessary prerequisite marizes our present knowledge of the endocrine systems of for ovarian oocytes to reach full vitellogenesis) is synthe penaeid shrimp and how they control vitellogenesis. Thoracic ganglion extract, In penaeid shrimp, maturation involves two main proc prepared from vitellogenic kuruma prawn females, was esses, vitellogenesis (Yano et al. Evidence has been presented to show Unilateral eyestalk ablation is effective in increasing se that 17? The hormone cies, Vg synthesis can be induced in isolated previtellogenic estradiol-17? However, they are not affected di tributed in the ovary of crustaceans (Kanazawa & Teshima rectly by hormone from eyestalks in vitro. Unilateral eyestalk ablation is not effec thesis mechanism in kuruma prawn as a precursor of tive in increasing serum Vg in vitellogenic female kuruma estradiol-17. Teshima S, kanazawa A (1971) Bioconversion of progesterone by However, serotonin was not effective in stimulating Vg syn the ovaries of crab, Portunus trituberculatus.

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Partitions of variance used for a certain extent removed from calculations anti viral apps cheap 100mg nemasole mastercard, and this improved calculation of heritabilities at 25 and 65 days are shown in the accuracy of the obtained estimated heritabilities. In both cases, the % variance compo due to low success in artificial insemination. Adjustment for non-genetic ment, only about 55% of the inseminated females spawned. In addition, this experi disease resistance in Pacific White Shrimp (Penaeus vannamei). It in aquaculture, 24-28 June 1997, Institute of Aquaculture, Uni should be pointed out that the best use of estimated herit versity of Stirling, Scotland ability would be when animals were at market size. An abstract of the sixth international symposium preferable to the half-sibs design. To minimize the error terms, on genetics in aquaculture, 24-28 June 1997, Institute of further investigations need to be carried out with a better Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Scotland design. Domestication and Genetic Improvement: What are these and how are these important to Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus Finally, a very high phenotypic correlation between total monodon Culture in Thailand? Triploidy induction is one possible way of using genetic manipulation to make stock improvements. It was initially reported to block the extrusion of first or second polar bodies in oocytes of starfish. Domestication and Selective Breeding of Penaeus monodon in Thailand 1 2 3 Boonsirm Withyachumnarnkul, Vichai Boonsaeng, T. Flegel 2 4 Sakol Panyim, Chainarong Wongteerasupaya Departments of 1Anatomy, 2Biochemistry and 3Biotechnology, Faculty of Science Mahidol University, Rama 6 Rd. Bangkok 10400, Thailand 4Department of Biochemistry, Sri Nakarintaraviroj University, Sukumvit Rd. They were reared for one year to become F0 pond-reared broodstock which were then bred to produce F1 offspring. From these broodstock the F2 offspring presently comprise nine full-sibling families. Fecundity of the F1 broodstock was lower than, but approaching that of wild, captured broodstock. The improvement was sufficient to make commercial scale production of postlarvae from these broodstock foreseeable. As in farming of other agricultural spe increased for eight years prior to the years 1995-1997 dur cies, domestication is a better alternative; better because it ing which time there was a leveling-off and even a slight allows for stricter disease prevention and control, and better drop in production. Crop loss has been due to several fac because genetic selection may also be achieved. To a lesser degree, luminescent lection for fast-growing and disease-resistant traits would bacterial infections have contributed to the declining pro be most desirable, as both would decrease the risk of loss duction.


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Campos-Munoz has some experience in treating such ated amenorrhea and may therefore believe they cannot become patients hiv infection french kissing purchase nemasole 100 mg with amex. Blunt cannula subcision caused fewer and less severe injected as local anesthesia, followed 15 minutes later by complications than Nokor needle subcision and both physi subcision and suturing. The risk of gestation in female is verified, it would seem reasonable When treating transgender patients, to-male transgender individuals under that isotretinoin be used only with she highlights that clinicians should use going testosterone treatment is difficult great care in those with a history of the name and personal pronoun that to quantify, but it is real,? Dr. Campos depression or who become depressed the particular individual prefers and Munoz says. Transgender adolescents tetracyclines or isotretinoin, frequent the remaining patients were treated and acne: A cases series. Isotretinoin treatment for acne and risk of depression: a systematic been confirmed in transgender individ so return of acne cannot be excluded, review and meta-analysis. J Am Acad Der uals who have higher rates of depres particularly given the patients continued matol. The systematic review was limited to randomized always by a greater amount than the control. The control controlled trials in acne, involving a total of 760 patients groups consisted of placebo (two studies), oral antibiotics (mostly men) comparing isotretinoin to control. For all the studies, isotretinoin therapy reduced acne Over the past few years, isotretinoin has been a conten lesion counts by a clinically relevant amount, which was tious topic,? says co-lead author Isabelle Vallerand, Ph. We documented no occurrences of suicide, pancreatitis or idiopathic intracranial hypertension with isotretinoin. University of Calgary School of Medicine, Alberta, Canada When the investigators looked into the scientific litera although the presence of some psychiatric or psychosomatic ture, they found mixed reports on adverse events. However, we believe that the cause of surprise to dermatologists, but provides solid, reaffirming mental illness is multifactorial and not likely explained by scientific data in support of using the medication for acne,? the use of isotretinoin alone, as evidenced by the data in our Dr. Secondly, while adverse effects are more common with the review lends strong support for the recommenda isotretinoin compared to other treatments, as might be tions of using isotretinoin found in current clinical practice expected, the majority of these adverse events are dryness guidelines in America, Canada and Europe. We documented no occurrences of suicide, pancre that dermatologists are well positioned to prescribe isotreti atitis or idiopathic intracranial hypertension with isotreti noin to their patients in a safe manner,? she said. Limitations of the review include the lack of long-term the review found roughly two adverse events in the follow-up data and differences in dosing, methodology, isotretinoin groups compared to one in the control groups, reporting and study samples. We looked at a plethora of interventions, such as red, green, yellow or blue light therapies. For investigator-assessed global improvement, there were There are many treatment options [for acne], but often also two protocols: Four sessions of 80-mg/g red light topical with no clear best choice,? said author Josip Car, M. This review was originally published in the Cochrane There was a small reduction in the number of inflamed library and included 71 studies from Brazil, Canada, China, lesions and in global improvement as assessed by an inves Denmark, Egypt, Germany, Israel, Nigeria, Norway, tigator. In summary, there just isn?t enough clinical evidence to the three primary outcomes were participants? global warrant medical recommendations for light therapies.

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The the circulating level of sex-hormone?binding globulin antiviral body wash order generic nemasole on-line, or etiology and investigation of primary and secondary tissue-speci? If the patient is an adolescent or young adult, then pu crease in the concentration of sex-hormone?binding bertal gynecomastia is the most likely etiology. These changes may persist to adult have functioning ovarian tissue may similarly present hood. Most patients with gynecomastia require no therapy to estrogens may trigger the onset of gynecomastia de other than the removal of the inciting cause, if identi novo. Surgery remains the androgen production and increases the conversion of mainstay of treatment, because gynecomastia of long androgen to estrogen. When onset is recent, medical therapy may investigation of gynecomastia is warranted, levels of be useful. Drugs are commonly implicated in the etiology of danazol, a weak androgen that inhibits gonadotropin gynecomastia. Treatment with dihydrotestosterone, which when treating patients with antiandrogens or estro cannot be aromatized to estrogen, is reported to pro gens. Prophylactic radiation others, such as chemotherapeutic agents and drugs of to the breasts can be used where gynecomastia can be abuse (especially marijuana and heroin), interfere with predicted, such as when treating prostate cancer normal androgen production in the testes or centrally. Spironolactone is an antiandrogen and increases the conversion of androgen to estrogen. Other systemic causes should be considered in patients Minerva Pediatr 2002;54(4): 357?361. Am Fam induces a central hypogonadism that does not affect Physician 1997;55(5): 1835?1844, 1849?1850. A patient who is hemodynamically unstable with pain and recognize the proper setting for surgical consulta possible intraabdominal hemorrhage may require tion. History and physical examination are critical in with hypotension, high fever, leukocytosis, and a evaluation. Admission for evaluation is common and should suggestive physical examination (involuntary guarding, be considered for acute pain without obvious surgical rigidity, increasing severe tenderness) should also indication that persists for 6 hours. Noxious stimulation bowel ischemia with acidosis, fever, and evidence of affecting abdominal viscera produces dull and usually hypovolemia also should be evaluated surgically, as poorly localized pain to the ventral midline of the abdo should the patient with evidence of perforation by men. This can be explained by multisegmental innervation plain radiography, contrast study, or paracentesis. Irritation of the parietal peritoneum Resuscitation is critical both before and during further produces more localized and often more severe pain.

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Unstable Stable Correct exacerbating conditions Refer for acute care D Assess prognosis B Assess risk factors Adequate information C Risk Factor Modification: on prognosis available? Behavioral Diet/Weight Reduction Exercise Yes No Smoking Cessation Pharmacologic E Stress test Aspirin (exercise or Treatment of Hypertension pharmacologic? If they do complete but not total occlusion of a coronary artery with not develop recurrent ischemia or other clinical instabil a platelet and? Determining appropriate therapy for each patient Antithrombotic Trialists? Collaboration hiv infection rates in southern africa buy nemasole with american express. The initial goal after the detection of a murmur is to tends to be a harsh, grating murmur, whereas that of identify the portion(s) of the cardiac cycle at which the mitral regurgitation has a gentle, blowing quality. Provocative Maneuvers: Several maneuvers that stenotic or abnormal semilunar valve (aortic or pulmo alter both cardiac blood? Abrupt standing and execution of the Valsalva maneu O nceam rm rhaseen d eterm ined toesystolicin ver reduce cardiac return, thereby diminishing pre timing, a series of steps can be undertaken to identify load, intracardiac volume, and transvalvular? Radiation: Radiation of the murmur away from the (pulmonic valve) and right (aortic valve) sternal border point of loudest intensity can provide diagnostic clues. Echocardiography can of determining a baseline, which is helpful in the as be used to con? American College of tricular septal defects in the adult patient occur most Cardiology/European Society of Cardiology clinical expert consensus commonly as a complication of myocardial infarction. A report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Task Force on Clinical Expert Con Post?myocardial infarction ventricular septal defects sensus Documents and the European Society of Cardiology Commit carry a high short-term risk of mortality and should tee for Practice Guidelines. Turbulent or nonlaminar pulmonic valve and is distinguished from that resulting blood? Murmurs in diastole have several possible causes, in proximal anterior descending artery that is in close cluding regurgitant? They begin well after the second heart sound and Once a murmur has been determined to be diastolic tend to have a low-pitched rumbling quality. Mitral ste in timing, a series of steps can be undertaken to iden nosis, most commonly a result of rheumatic heart dis tify the exact cause. The relative timing during diastole ease, a low-pitched rumbling murmur initiated with an (early, middle, or late) and the location of optimal in opening snap and heard best at the cardiac apex, is best tensity are essential for determination of the underly heard with the patient in the left lateral decubitus posi ing pathology. Mitral stenosis murmurs aortic or pulmonic valve components of the second heart that extend through until S1 re? Mid Tricuspid stenosis produces a murmur that is simi diastolic murmurs begin at the end of the silent interval lar in timing and quality as that produced by mitral following the second heart sound and terminate well be valve stenosis but is heard best at the left lower sternal fore the? The most characteristic element of the mur (presystolic murmurs) occur immediately before the?

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Furthermore hiv infection kidney disease purchase nemasole 100mg, because rapid changes in ventilation or oxygenation may occur, continuous monitoring is highly recommended. Optimal utilization of these ventilators is evolving, and different strategies may be indicated for a particular lung disease. In severe bronchopleural fistula not responsive to thoracostomy tube evacuation and conventional ventilation, high-frequency jet ventilation may provide adequate ventilation and decrease fistulas. It is usually implemented at the point of severe respiratory failure with maximal conventional ventilation (a rescue treatment). No advantages have yet been demonstrated for a very early intervention (in the first hours of life) when infants are pretreated with surfactant. High-frequency ventilation has been used with success in infants with other disease processes. Further study is needed to develop clear indications and appropriate ventilatory strategies before this treatment can be recommended for routine use in infants with these diseases. The ventilator has an elaborate alarm system to ensure safety and to help detect changes in pulmonary function. Replacement of the endotracheal tube adapter with a jet adapter or reintubation with a special triple-lumen jet tube. Management of high-frequency jet ventilation is based on the clinical course and radiographic findings. However, if oxygenation is inadequate and the infant is already on 100% oxygen, an increase in usually results in improved oxygenation. Diligent observation and frequent radiographs are necessary to avoid hyperinflation of the nondependent side. Continuation of high-frequency jet ventilation occurs until the air leak has been resolved for 24-48 h, which often corresponds to a dramatic decrease in ventilator pressures and oxygen requirement. If no improvement in the condition occurs, a trial of conventional ventilation is used after 6-24 h on jet ventilation. When a stiff triple-lumen endotracheal tube is used, the bevel of the tube may become lodged against the tracheal wall, resulting in airway obstruction. Decreasing the background flow on the conventional ventilator may correct the problem, or it may be necessary to decrease the respiratory frequency to allow more time for expiration. Necrotizing tracheobronchitis was a frequent complication in the early days of jet ventilation. This problem is much less frequent with the recognition of the critical importance of proper humidification of the jet gases. The Infrasonics Infant Star ventilator may not be effective in infants whose birth weight is >1800 g. The manufacturer prefers to call this ventilator a flow oscillator because of the ventilation technique used and its flow characteristics. It can be termed a hybrid oscillator because it has features of both a flow interrupter (jet) and an oscillator. The sudden expansion of gas after the burst creates a rebound negative-pressure deflection that closely approximates the active exhalation of oscillatory ventilation.

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At times hiv infection levels discount nemasole 100 mg with mastercard, bacilli may enter the circulation through erosion tuberculous infection have particularly high incidence of in a blood vessel and spread to various tissues and organs. The bacilli lying the subapical lesions in lungs can have the following courses: dormant in acellular caseous material are activated and cause progressive secondary tuberculosis. The lesions may heal with fibrous scarring and commonly but adults may also develop this kind of calcification. The lesions may coalesce together to form larger area of tuberculous pneumonia and produce progressive secondary B. Secondary Tuberculosis pulmonary tuberculosis with the following pulmonary and extrapulmonary involvements: the infection of an individual who has been previously i) Fibrocaseous tuberculosis infected or sensitised is called secondary, or post-primary or ii) Tuberculous caseous pneumonia reinfection, or chronic tuberculosis. The original area complex; or of tuberculous pneumonia undergoes massive central exogenous source such as fresh dose of reinfection by the caseation necrosis which may: tubercle bacilli. Other sites and tissues which can be remain, as a soft caseous lesion without drainage into a involved are tonsils, pharynx, larynx, small intestine and bronchus or bronchiole to produce a non-cavitary lesion skin. Secondary tuberculosis of other organs and tissues is (chronic fibrocaseous tuberculosis). The cavity may communicate with bronchial tree and Secondary Pulmonary Tuberculosis becomes the source of spread of infection (?open tuberculosis). The open case of secondary tuberculosis may implant the lesions in secondary pulmonary tuberculosis usually tuberculous lesion on the mucosal lining of air passages begin as 1-2 cm apical area of consolidation of the lung, which producing endobronchial and endotracheal tuberculosis. It occurs by haematogenous spread endogenous pulmonary lesions may produce laryngeal and of infection from primary complex to the apex of the affected intestinal tuberculosis. Microscopically, the appear Grossly, tuberculous cavity is spherical with thick fibrous wall, lined by yellowish, caseous, necrotic material and the lumen is traversed by thrombosed blood vessels. Microscopically, the wall of cavity shows eosinophilic, granular, caseous material which may show foci of dystrophic calcification. Widespread coalesced tuberculous granulomas composed of epithelioid cells, Langhans? giant cells and peripheral mantle of lymphocytes and having central caseation necrosis are seen. Complications of cavitary secondary tuberculosis are as follows: a) Aneurysms of patent arteries crossing the cavity Figure 6. A, Non-cavitary (chronic) fibrocaseous tuberculosis (left) and cavitary/open fibrocaseous tuberculosis (right). The caseous material from a case of secondary tuberculosis in an Microscopically, the lesions show the structure of tuber individual with high degree of hypersensitivity may spread cles with minute areas of caseation necrosis (Fig. Clinical Features and Diagnosis of Tuberculosis Microscopically, the lesions show exudative reaction with the clinical manifestations in tuberculosis may be variable oedema, fibrin, polymorphs and monocytes but numerous depending upon the location, extent and type of lesions. Referable to lungs?such as productive cough, may be genous spread of tuberculous infection from primary focus with haemoptysis, pleural effusion, dyspnoea, orthopnoea or later stages of tuberculosis. Chest X-ray may show typical apical changes like pleural systemic organs or isolated organ. The spread is either by effusion, nodularity, and miliary or diffuse infiltrates in the entry of infection into pulmonary vein producing dissemi lung parenchyma.

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Functional centrality: detecting lethality of proteins in protein interaction networks anti viral echinamide safe nemasole 100mg. Identification of 113 conserved essential genes using a high-throughput gene disruption system in Streptococcus pneumoniae. A comprehensive analysis of protein-protein interactions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. High-throughput yeast two-hybrid assays for large scale protein interaction mapping. Global protein-protein interaction network in the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Systems biology, proteomics, and the future of health care: toward predictive, preventative, and personalized medicine. Integrating diverse biological and computational sources for reliable protein-protein interactions. Evolutionary conservation of motif constituents in the yeast protein interaction network. The importance of bottlenecks in protein networks: correlation with gene essentiality and expression dynamics. Medicinal chemists began the process by taking a lead structure and then finding analogs exhibiting the preferred biological activities. Next, they used their experience and chemical insight to eventually choose a nominee analog for further development. The conventional methods of drug discovery are now being supplemented by shortest approaches made possible by the accepting of the molecular processes involved in the original disease. In this view, the preliminary point in drug design is the molecular target which is receptor or enzyme in the body as an option of the existence of known lead structure. Samples of protein targets were isolated and X-ray crystallography discovered their molecular structural design. Molecules are conceived either on the basis of similarities with recognized reference structures or on the basis of their complementarily with the three dimensional (3D) structure of well-known active sites. The techniques currently on hand provide widespread insight into exact molecular features that are in charge for the regulation of biological processes: molecular geometries, electronic features and others. All these structural characteristics are of crucial importance in the understanding of structure-activity relationships and in rational drug design. Rational drug design is based on the belief that the biological properties of drugs are related to their actual structural features. In the past, medicinal chemists considered molecules as simple two-dimensional (2D) entities with related chemical and physicochemical properties. However, most of these properties have not been well represented by the basic numerical parameters considered to characterize these features: the interactions between a ligand and a protein require much more information than the ones included in substituent indexes 56 Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Design characterizing the molecular properties.

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For example antiviral neuraminidase inhibitor order nemasole 100mg otc, that the appropriate sample sizes required to ensure representative samples are taken, and that contamination is avoided by selection of appropriate containers for storing samples. Sampling and analysis methods used in official controls should comply with relevant Community rules and/or with internationally recognised rules or protocols. The findings of the inspectors, along with the interpretation of the analyses of the process samples or samples of the end products, are essential to the final professional judgement of food safety. The data produced by an officially recognised laboratory must be seen to be independent of outside influence, and must be recognised by both consumers and the food industry as of the highest quality. These characteristics can only be achieved by a reliable blend of qualifications, expertise and experience applied in a well-equipped, accredited, and quality assured environment. A further characteristic is the requirement to be able to apply these skills over a very wide range of potential problems, (in contrast to the more limited range of many specialist laboratories). Note that in the following method descriptions, only specific additional items of equipment relevant to the test method are detailed, assuming that the laboratory is fully equipped with all support items. Official food control laboratories should have adequate infrastructure, facilities, equipment, supplies and reference materials, and access to calibration and maintenance. At the technical level, there should be a competent technical manager or laboratory manager responsible for overseeing all the analyses performed, who can provide the necessary training and certify the competence of the staff conducting the tests. All members of staff must be trained in every aspect of their duties, whether in the use of specific items of equipment or for full analytical procedures. Tests for official controls should be performed or supervised by an experienced person, with a degree in chemistry and microbiology or the equivalent. Alternative qualifications may be sufficient where a member off staff has extensive relevant experience relating to the laboratories? standard of accreditation. The technicians could be graduates, but this is not so critical provided they have some basic chemistry/microbiology qualifications (A level, diploma or equivalent) and receive appropriate on the-job training. For a microbiology laboratory routinely testing fish, fishery products and water samples, experienced food microbiologists trained in working with pathogens are especially relevant. Microbiologists typically work with little supervision but are supported by technicians. They should be able to interpret results, work with dilutions, and understand microbiological principles, methods and new techniques. Good cooperation between the sampling inspectorate and the laboratory is essential for the accuracy of test results. If the background in food microbiology is weak, it can be augmented by training, either through appropriate courses or on the-job mentoring by a suitably experienced colleague. Typically, the analysis for contaminates and residues in fish require sophisticated instrumentation to analyse at low detection limits. These analyses are usually undertaken in specialised laboratories, and such analyses require qualified chemists to prepare samples and to operate the equipment. Staff training is essential to ensure that system failures cannot be attributed to incompetence of the analyst.

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Furthermore natural anti viral foods cheap nemasole 100 mg, he suggested distinguishing between posi tive and negative hurdles for the quality of foods [10]. Hurdle technology is applicable not only to safety, but also to quality aspects of foods, although this area of knowledge has been explored much less than the safety aspect. McKenna emphasized that while hurdle technology is appropriate for securing the microbial stability and safety of foods, the total quality of foods is a much broader field and encompasses a wide range of physical, biological, and chemical attributes. The concept of combined processes should work toward the total quality of foods rather than the narrow but important aspects of microbial stability and safety. However, at present the tools for applying hurdle technology to total food quality are still not adequate, and this is equally true for predicting food quality by modeling. However, researchers should appreciate the wider power of the hurdle technology concept, and food industry should use the available tools of combined processes for as many quality enhancements as is possible [11]. The possible hurdles in foods might influence the stability and safety, as well as the sensory, nutritive, technological, and economic properties of a prod uct, and the hurdles present might be negative or positive for securing the desired total quality of a food. Moreover, the same hurdle could have a positive or a negative effect on foods, depending on its inten sity. For instance, chilling to an unsuitably low temperature will be detrimental to fruit quality (?chilling injury), whereas moderate chilling is beneficial. Another example is the pH of fermented sausages, which should be low enough to inhibit pathogenic bacteria, but not so low as to impair taste. If the inten sity of a particular hurdle in a food is too small it should be strengthened; on the other hand, if it is detri mental to the total food quality it should be lowered. By this adjustment, the hurdles in foods should be kept in the optimal range, considering safety as well as quality [7,12]. The most important hurdles commonly used for the preser vation of foods, either applied as process? or additive? hurdles, are temperature (high or low), decreased water activity (aw), acidity (pH), low redox potential (Eh), preservatives. In addition, more than 50 hur dles of potential use in foods of animal or plant origin, which improve the stability and the quality of these products, have hitherto been identified and described [12,13], and the list of possible hurdles for food preservation is by no means complete. At present especially physical, nonthermal processes (high hydrostatic pressure, mano-thermo-sonication, oscillating magnetic fields, pulsed elec tric fields, and light pulses) receive considerable attention, since in combination with conventional hur dles they are of potential use for the microbial stabilization of fresh-like food products with little induced degradation of sensory and nutritional properties. Another group of hurdles that is at pres ent of special interest in industrialized as well as in developing countries are natural preservatives? (spice extracts, lysozyme, chitosan, pectin hydrolysate, protamine, paprika glycoprotein, and hop extracts). However, not all the potential hurdles for food preservation will be commonly applied, and certainly not all of them to the same food product. The feasible responses of the microorganisms to such a hos tile environment determine whether they may grow or die. More basic research is needed related to these responses, because a better understanding of the physiological basis for the growth, survival, and death of microorganisms in food products might open new dimensions for food preservation [7]. Furthermore, such an understanding would be the scientific basis for an efficient application of hurdle technology in the preservation of foods. Recent advances in these respects have been made by considering the home ostasis, metabolic exhaustion, and stress reactions of microorganisms, as well as by introducing the con cept of multitarget preservation for a gentle but effective preservation of foods [8,14]. Homeostasis is the tendency toward uniformity or stability in the normal status (internal environment) of organisms.


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